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open

open(filename[, mode[, bufsize]])

Returns a new file object (see type-file). The first two arguments are the same as for stdio‘s fopen(): filename is the file name to be opened, mode indicates how the file is to be opened: 'r' for reading, 'w' for writing (truncating an existing file), and 'a' opens it for appending (which on some Unix systems means that all writes append to the end of the file, regardless of the current seek position).

Modes 'r+', 'w+' and 'a+' open the file for updating (note that 'w+' truncates the file). Append 'b' to the mode to open the file in binary mode, on systems that differentiate between binary and text files (else it is ignored). If the file cannot be opened, IOError is raised.

In addition to the standard fopen() values mode may be 'U' or 'rU'. If Python is built with universal newline support (the default) the file is opened as a text file, but lines may be terminated by any of '\n', the Unix end-of-line convention, '\r', the Macintosh convention or '\r\n', the Windows convention. All of these external representations are seen as '\n' by the Python program. If Python is built without universal newline support mode 'U' is the same as normal text mode. Note that file objects so opened also have an attribute called newlines which has a value of None (if no newlines have yet been seen), '\n', '\r', '\r\n', or a tuple containing all the newline types seen.

If mode is omitted, it defaults to 'r'. When opening a binary file, you should append 'b' to the mode value for improved portability. (It’s useful even on systems which don’t treat binary and text files differently, where it serves as documentation.) The optional bufsize argument specifies the file’s desired buffer size: 0 means unbuffered, 1 means line buffered, any other positive value means use a buffer of (approximately) that size. A negative bufsize means to use the system default, which is usually line buffered for tty devices and fully buffered for other files. If omitted, the system default is used.

Note: Specifying a buffer size currently has no effect on systems that don’t have setvbuf(). The interface to specify the buffer size is not done using a method that calls setvbuf(), because that may dump core when called after any I/O has been performed, and there’s no reliable way to determine whether this is the case.

The file constructor is new in Python 2.2 and is an alias for open. Both spellings are equivalent. The intent is for open to continue to be preferred for use as a factory function which returns a new file object. The spelling, file is more suited to type testing (for example, writing “isinstance(f, file)”).