# The Queue module

This module provides a thread-safe queue implementation. It provides a convenient way of moving Python objects between different threads.

**Example: Using the Queue module**

# File: queue-example-1.py import threading import Queue import time, random WORKERS = 2 class Worker(threading.Thread): def __init__(self, queue): self.__queue = queue threading.Thread.__init__(self) def run(self): while 1: item = self.__queue.get() if item is None: break # reached end of queue # pretend we're doing something that takes 10-100 ms time.sleep(random.randint(10, 100) / 1000.0) print "task", item, "finished" # # try it queue = Queue.Queue(0) for i in range(WORKERS): Worker(queue).start() # start a worker for i in range(10): queue.put(i) for i in range(WORKERS): queue.put(None) # add end-of-queue markers

task 1 finished task 0 finished task 3 finished task 2 finished task 4 finished task 5 finished task 7 finished task 6 finished task 9 finished task 8 finished

You can limit the size of the queue. If the producer threads fill the queue, they will block until items are popped off the queue.

**Example: Using the Queue module with a maximum size**

# File: queue-example-2.py import threading import Queue import time, random WORKERS = 2 class Worker(threading.Thread): def __init__(self, queue): self.__queue = queue threading.Thread.__init__(self) def run(self): while 1: item = self.__queue.get() if item is None: break # reached end of queue # pretend we're doing something that takes 10-100 ms time.sleep(random.randint(10, 100) / 1000.0) print "task", item, "finished" # # run with limited queue queue = Queue.Queue(3) for i in range(WORKERS): Worker(queue).start() # start a worker for item in range(10): print "push", item queue.put(item) for i in range(WORKERS): queue.put(None) # add end-of-queue markers

push 0 push 1 push 2 push 3 push 4 push 5 task 0 finished push 6 task 1 finished push 7 task 2 finished push 8 task 3 finished push 9 task 4 finished task 6 finished task 5 finished task 7 finished task 9 finished task 8 finished

You can modify the behavior through subclassing. The following class provides a simple priority queue. It expects all items added to the queue to be tuples, where the first member contains the priority (lower value means higher priority):

**Note:**
Python 2.4 does not use a mutable sequence for the internal queue,
so the following example no longer works. An updated version will
be posted at a later time.

**Example: Using the Queue module to implement a priority queue**

# File: queue-example-3.py import Queue import bisect Empty = Queue.Empty class PriorityQueue(Queue.Queue): "Thread-safe priority queue" def _put(self, item): # insert in order bisect.insort(self.queue, item) # # try it queue = PriorityQueue(0) # add items out of order queue.put((20, "second")) queue.put((10, "first")) queue.put((30, "third")) # print queue contents try: while 1: print queue.get_nowait() except Empty: pass

third second first

And here’s a simple stack implementation (last-in first-out, instead of first-in, first-out):

**Example: Using the Queue module to implement a stack**

# File: queue-example-4.py import Queue Empty = Queue.Empty class Stack(Queue.Queue): "Thread-safe stack" def _put(self, item): # insert at the beginning of queue, not at the end self.queue.insert(0, item) # method aliases push = Queue.Queue.put pop = Queue.Queue.get pop_nowait = Queue.Queue.get_nowait # # try it stack = Stack(0) # push items on stack stack.push("first") stack.push("second") stack.push("third") # print stack contents try: while 1: print stack.pop_nowait() except Empty: pass

third second first